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FRICTION STIR WELDING

The Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process offers many advantages over other arc welding processes:

  • deformation is minimal, as it is a “cold” welding process,
  • non-weldable materials can be welded with arc-based processes, such as light or aluminum alloys to steels, copper, and other materials, and
  • strength and properties of welds are achieved very similar to those of metals that are joined
  • welding defects associated with weld metal solidification are minimized
  • achievement of welding speeds several times higher than usual with arc processes
  • you can weld thick materials in one or two passes
  • it’s a clean process that barely uses consumables
  • no bevel or chamfering preparations are required

We make this technology available to those who value its advantages with a process of progressive implementation and appropriate to each particular need.

A value alliance offering welding solutions

Stainless steel tube welding with Friction Stir Welding process. CJP

Welding on both sides of aluminum alloy up to 80 mm thick

Aluminum 15 mm thick being welded in both T-joint sides

1. Knowledge and experience with FSW since its inception in close collaboration with TWI

2. Maintenance of the state of the art with continuous technology improvement with alliances among developer companies of the process

3. Ability to study applications and solutions

4. Production capacity of prototypes and series of components

5. Capacity to design, manufacture and deliver production systems

6. Possibility of gradual implementation of welding technology for depreciation from the beginning of the solution to be adopted.

Solysol, everything for welding
1. Technical knowledge

2. Experience in introducing new processes

3. Application and solution research capability with new technologies

4. Communication with the customer and understanding of their needs

5. Installation, commissioning and training

6. After-sales service

7. Maintaining state of the art

8. AWS Standardization for North American-influenced markets

Principles of the FSW Process

We are not creating a need:

¡ We’re coming to cover an existing need !


–Process created, developed and patented by The Welding Institute (TWI) in 1991. The patent was made of public domain in 2015

–Solid-state welding process (joining temperature < melting temperature) without filler metal adition. such

–The friction of the tool generates heat and molecular motion that allows welding


4 PROCESS PHASES:

  1. Rotation and introduction of the tool in the interface of the components to be joined or welded.
  2. Preheating: rotating maintenance of the tool at the starting position to create enough heat in the material for sufficient heating of the joint
  3. Welding: The tool advances on the joint through the material softened by the combination of the rotation and traveling of the tool
  4. Removing the tool
  5. Key-hole filling only if necessary

Principles-Friction-Stir-Welding

Process Variables

Friction-Stir-Welding-Principles

TOOL – BOLT:

– Composed of a punch and a shoulder (pin and shoulder)

– The geometry is highly variable (cylindrical, conical, threaded, with flat recesses or grooves, with shoulder in the punch,…)

– The geometry of the bolt makes it possible to obtain a better mix of the materials to be joined

Bolts - FSW

 

 

 

ESSENTIAL PARAMETERS:

-Rotation speed [RPM]

– Traveling speed [mm/min]

-Perpendicular force [N]

 

 

 

 

 


Weld Microstructure

5 zones differentiated in the weld

Base metal: neither deformations nor heat modify its crystalline structure

Heat Affected Zone (HAZ): no deformation due to the tool

Thermo-Mechanical Affected Zone (TMAZ): is affected by heat and major plastic deformations. We see a rotation of the grains and the appearance of restoration and recrystallization phenomena

Core: dissolution of precipitates, important deformations through which recrystallization occurs and new crystalline structures (small equiaxial grains)

Arm of Flow (Flow-arm): Recrystallized area, forged by the shoulder of the tool

Micrograph-Friction-Stir-Welding

Example of dissimilar joint Al-7XXX/6XXX:

Dissimilar aluminum joint

Example of dissimilar joint Al-7XXX/6XXX:

dissimilar-weld-FSW-aluminum

TENSILE STRENGTH TEST

TENSILE STRENGTH TEST

The results of mechanical tests show that the properties of welds and thermally affected areas are very similar and sometimes superior to those of base metals with the FSW process

Advantages of the Friction Stir Welding Process (FSW)

Limitations of the processes of arc welding process :
Limited or not recommended weldability of some alloys

– Limitation to weld some dissimilar materials
– Limited productivity
– Typical MIG defectology: porosity, lack of fusion, hot cracking, …
– Need for filler metals, with different composition and properties to base metals and with additional cost
– Reduction of mechanical properties of the joints of some alloys
– Distortion and residual stresses from contractions and dilations with high temperature variations
– Cost of changing wearable parts


Advantages of the process of welding Friction Stir Welding (8FSW) :

Friction Stir Welding

ENVIRONMENTAL FINANCIAL TECHNOLOGY
No protective gas Increased productivity (joining speed up to about 3 m/min) It is possible to weld non-weldable or hard-to-weld alloys with conventional processes (series 2XXX, 7XXX …)
No smoke Minimum consumable cost Difficult or unweldable materials can be welded with fusion methods
No UV radiation Tool life Thick components can be joined, depending on the materials (50mm aluminum alloys with one pass, or 100 mm with one pass on each side)
Much lower temperatures No addition of filler metal It is possible to weld in many joint configurations: butt, overlap, T and edge
Welding-80mm-FSW No beveling, even for large thicknesses of material to be joined Avoids hot cracking and other defects, reduces distortion and residual stress, excellent repetitiveness and reproducibility

Equipment available for FSW welding

We have automatic installations for welding components of different dimensions and in variable production quantity depending on the need.

These equipments are available for

  • Research and development of solutions for specific applications
  • Production of prototypes for evaluation of properties and characteristics of welded components
  • Production of component series until investment in own equipment, systems or solutions is established as viable

FSW Process Applications

Many materials can be joined with FSW process: Aluminum Alloys, Steel, Copper, Titanium, Nickel …

In addition, dissimilar materials can be joined, which is not always possible with traditional arc welding processes.

The following slides show applications of current productions in the fields of:

  • Aeronautics
  • Military
  • Automotive
  • Railway
  • Research and development

In summary :

The
alliance TRA-C and Solysol / Arctech puts at your hand this technology so that your company decides in every step how integrating it in your production:
Advice in setup of joint configuration
Design of components for the optimization of the production of the final welded product
Production of prototypes for testing , qualifications and assessment of costs and productivity
Production of series while you evaluate the convenience of your investment in the equipment for your own production
Full transfer of all the technology and knowledge obtained in the production to your company
Implementation in your company of the system for production
Advice during your first productions and for continuous improvements of the same components or new components to be welded with your equipment
Integral after-sales service

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